Vascular Anomalies and Birthmarks Program

Conditions We Treat

We treat patients with a range of vascular conditions and birthmarks, from simple and benign to rare and complex. These include vascular tumors, vascular malformations, overgrowth syndromes and mixed malformations.

The illustration shows an example of an infantile hemangioma.
The illustration shows an example of an infantile hemangioma, which is a type of vascular tumor.

Vascular tumors

Vascular tumors occur when blood vessels grow abnormally, forming a mass, or tumor. The tumor may be on the surface of the skin, under the skin or both. Many vascular tumors can be diagnosed during a physical exam. Your child’s physician will sometimes order an ultrasound, X-ray or MRI to help diagnose a vascular tumor, depending on your child’s individual needs.

Vascular tumors we treat include:

  • Angiosarcoma
  • Congenital hemangiomas
  • Epithelioid hemangioma
  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
  • Infantile hemangiomas (sometimes called a “strawberry birthmark”)
  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma
  • Papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA)
  • Pyogenic granuloma
  • Retiform, pseudomyogenic and composite hemangioendothelioma
  • Spindle cell hemangioma
  • Tufted angioma

The illustration shows an example of a vascular malformation.
The illustration shows an example of a vascular malformation.

Vascular malformations

Vascular malformations occur when blood vessels do not form properly while a baby is developing in the uterus. The symptoms of these conditions vary depending on the type of blood vessels involved. These may include arteries, veins, capillaries, lymphatic channels or a combination of these. Though they are present at birth, they are often noticed for the first time later in childhood or after puberty.

Vascular malformations we treat include:

Arteriovenous malformations

  • Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM)
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)
  • Parkes Weber syndrome
  • Sporadic arteriovenous malformations

Capillary malformations

  • Cutaneous, reticulate, and/or mucosal CM
  • Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenital (CMTC)
  • Diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth (DCMO)
  • Sturge-Webber Syndrome
  • Telangiectasias

Lymphatic malformations

  • Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA)        
  • Gorham-Stout disease (GSD)
  • Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA)
  • Macrocystic, microcystic, and mixed-type lymphatic malformations
  • Primary lymphedema

Venous malformations

  • Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS)
  • Common venous malformation
  • Familial cutaneomucosal venous malformation
  • Glomuvenous malformation (GVM)
  • Verrucous venous malformation (formerly called verrucous hemangioma)

Vascular syndromes

  • Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome
  • CLOVES syndrome
  • Fibroadipose vascular anomaly (FAVA)
  • Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome
  • Macro/microcephaly-capillary malformation
  • Maffucci syndrome
  • Multifocal lymphangioendotheliomatosis with thrombocytopenia (MLT)
  • Parkes Weber syndrome
  • PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS)
  • Proteus syndrome
  • PTEN hamartoma syndrome


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